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How to Write An Essay Outline

In the course of their studies, students are very often asked to write an essay on a particular topic. This type of written work allows a young mind to express themselves: to show non-standard thinking and the ability to make logical chains within the framework of the problem under discussion. But, in order to make your essay perfect and produce the desired effect on the reader, one cannot neglect the drawing up of a plan. So, how do you write a really good essay outline?

What Is An Essay Outline?

A well-composed essay outline serves to systematize the author’s ideas and correctly structure the piece. Its purpose is to summarize the essay and help the student to organize the content logically and structurally correctly. This is a kind of roadmap that helps the student “not to go astray”, that is, not to forget what exactly he is writing about and in what sequence he wanted to bring this or that argument/proof. Most often, a paper is written in a 5-paragraph structure that addresses key points.

It is possible to write a work without drawing up an outline, but its quality will undoubtedly suffer greatly from this, because:

  • An essay outline makes it possible to structure the material properly as your research on the subject matter for writing progresses and material accumulates. The plan makes it clear what, where, and how to put it for the best presentation of the problem, without losing a single detail.
  • Meanwhile composing an essay outline, the student gets to know the topic as such, which allows him to better present it to the reader.
  • When the outline is written, it is much easier for the author to navigate the material collected for the article.

Now that you understand the importance of an outline when writing an essay, it’s time to start with the actual problem of writing it.


The opening section of each writing piece naturally does not exceed 3-4 sentences. In them, the author must define the topic of the essay, which prompted him to write and necessarily the thesis, which is a fundamental part of the writing. The essay plan must contain the topic and thesis in itself. To best organize the introduction, you should adhere to the following recommendations:

  • The very first sentence always represents the topic of the piece and is obliged to attract the attention of readers, so to speak to “hook”.
  • The second sentence of this part of the essay should briefly cover the topic. It should be laconic, but familiarize the reader with everything he needs.
  • The last sentence concerns the thesis. Readers should know what the work is about.

Main Part

This is the most informative and largest part of your essay. Here, the main arguments and proofs of the problem are discussed. Each statement needs a corresponding quote from the research, writing, etc. All paragraphs of the main part of the essay should have an idea that supports the thesis.


In the very last part of the essay, the reader should be reminded of what was discussed in the paper, that is, once again voice the thesis, but paraphrasing it. Here, the author explains the importance/relevance/topicality of the thesis and why he thinks so.

A rough outline of an essay will look like this:

basic essay outline

Types of Essay Outlines

There are several common kinds of essay plans. Here, they are:

Alphanumeric Outline Style

The alphanumeric outline formation is the most commonly used. It is very comfortable and practical. So, this is how it looks:

  • Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.) are used to indicate the main paragraphs of the essay. Typically, there are no more than five of them.
  • Capital letters (A, B, C, etc.) are applied to indicate important points in the main sections.
  • Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) are utilized to further detail important points in the major paragraphs.
  • Lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) are applied if more detailing is indispensable.


Decimal Essay Outline Style

The decimal structure is also used quite often and has its adherents. The system uses only numbers. This type of essay outline starts at 1.0 and goes at 2.0, 3.0, etc., based on the number of main paragraphs. It is necessary to change the number after the dot for each new data detail. For example, if you include information to a paragraph with the number 2.0, the sub-clause will have the title 2.1, 2.2, and so on. In case additional sub-clauses are required, the author adds more decimal places. It will look like 2.1.1, 2.2.1, etc.


In order to achieve the best results when writing an essay, you should not neglect to write a quality outline. After all, an essay without a plan is chaotic, not thought out, the thought “wanders in a circle.” This means that you need to learn how to correctly draw up an essay outline. It’s not that easy.

Making an essay outline means breaking it into fragments (semantic parts of the text – paragraphs), mentally highlighting the main stages of the path along which your thought will develop. Each such fragment is a micro text, which can be equal to one paragraph. Each micro text will correspond to a point in the plan. It is important that it be united by the main thought, which has its beginning, development, and completion within its boundaries.

As a name in the essay outline, as a rule, not separate words and not sentences are taken out, but expanded phrases. Individual words are too “narrow”, specific, the main idea or theme is difficult to convey with them. But, complex sentences are not suitable either, because they represent an already finished, complete thought. It is the phrase that is more suitable for the essay outline. It is a kind of semantic unity that carries information in a collapsed form. And in the work itself, this information “unfolds” and the thought is revealed.

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How to Write a CV for A Grad School

People who plan to enter a graduate school often have to attach to the standard package of documents required for admission also a CV. At first glance, everything is quite simple and each person, to one degree or another, has an idea of what needs to be included in this document. But, everything is not so simple and for those who are going to be admitted to a grad school, it is extremely important to know what is the fundamental contrariety between a resume and CV.

So, what exactly is the difference between these two documents? It’s bigger than you think:

  • CVs are most widely used in academia, while resumes are used more in professional fields. This means that CVs cover academic achievement in greater detail rather than professional history.
  • CVs are generally longer than resumes. If a resume is characterized by a length of one page and brevity of presentation, then for a curriculum vitae, the size of two or three pages is not a problem.

Key Points Of An Academic CV And What To Write There

Although there is a list of the main sections that must be included in the curriculum vitae, it is not strict and the final choice remains with the person writing it. But, if you want to show all your positive academic aspects that will be of interest to the admission committee of graduate studies, you should pay attention to the recommendations that are given below.

So, the main points of the academic CV are the following:

Personal Information

The applicant must write his full name and surname, home address, contact telephone number, and personal email address. It is best to place this information at the top of the first page of a CV but centered on the page, or left-aligned will also work. Use a larger font size and bold text to make the information stand out and eye-catching. It is not necessary to add a photo.

personal info


This CV element aims to show the admissions committee that you have the necessary education to qualify for a place in the program. Here, list all the educational institutions you attended, but in reverse order. Enter insignia, if any (i.e, “cum laude,” “magna cum laude,” “summa cum laude”). GPA data is optional.

Teaching Experience

Few of those who go to graduate school already have teaching experience, but any familiarity with tutoring or working as a teacher’s assistant can be mentioned in this section. It is worth describing it in a CV without ignoring the skills and responsibilities that the applicant performed.

Research Experience

If a potential student has such practice, it should definitely be mentioned in a CV. It is necessary to state the institution’s name and responsibilities, the full name of the tutor, and the dates when the research work took place.

Honors and Awards

The availability of information that can be entered into this item is highly desirable. When listing the available awards, they should be mentioned in order of importance, the chronology is not important here. List each award, the awarding institution, and the date it was given.


Academic and Professional Experience

Professional experience does not take a central place in an academic CV, but it can demonstrate commitment and a high level of work ethic. It is possible to compile a list of jobs that highlight academic skills and qualifications. They should be briefly described as follows: name of employer, location, the title of your position, the time frame of employment, and professional responsibilities.


This point is quite important and shouldn’t be left out of attention. If you don’t have publishing experience in academic resources, you can also include publications in newspapers, magazines, blogs, and newsletters that foreground your aptitudes as a writer. For each work, bibliographic references must be made in the appropriate format, that is, in your future field of study.


Academic and Professional Membership

Membership in professional or academic groups shows that a person is ready for dialogue, is not content with the acquired knowledge, and is looking for new like-minded people in his academic circle. You must list the groups with the full name, timeframes of membership, and the position obtained.

Volunteer Activities

Participation in community service and volunteering shows that a person is ready to work in a team, does not put himself above others, and is worried about other people. Also, this is an activity where leadership and organizational skills are developed that can be useful in postgraduate studies. It is necessary to make a list of these events in a CV and indicate your role, date of participation.


Typically, this is the final point on an academic CV. At least, 3-5 academic guidelines should be mentioned. This is done in order to be able to confirm the abilities and qualifications specified in the CV. Write the name of the reference, professional position, place of work, and contact information so that they can be reached.

CV Formatting Tips

Even the highest achievements must be properly formatted so that they can be appreciated. This perfectly describes the need for appropriate formatting of the academic CV. After all, if it is not very well organized and not easy to read, the members of the admissions committee will most likely simply skip it. Pay attention to the following nuances when compiling a CV:

  • Formatting options (indentation, font, and text size, spacing) should be consistent across the entire academic resume.
  • It is acceptable to use bold, italic, underline, and capitalized words to highlight basic information.
  • In all paragraphs of the biography, when listing something, use a reverse chronological order.
  • It is acceptable to use your last name as a header or footer.

A CV that is properly formatted and contains all the necessary information about the applicant can become a pass to graduate school. To achieve what you want, you shouldn’t make up this document in a hurry. Writing a CV requires sufficient time and meticulousness because it is one of the most important tools with which you can conquer the admission committee and start the coveted study.

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How to Write a Reflection Paper On An Article

A reflection paper is a fairly common type of essay that students of educational institutions often have to write. It must be academically correct, in accordance with generally accepted norms, but, at the same time, be deeply personal. This particular kind of essay aims to “challenge the student to an open conversation”, honestly analyze and reflect on how this or that article or book influenced his/her thoughts on the subject. To understand how to create a really high-quality reflection paper, you should familiarize yourself with the information provided below.

Reflection Paper. Definition and Formatting

The reflection paper is a type of essay that obliges the person who writes it to share his/her personal opinion on a topic, without fail backing it up with his/her observations, thoughts, and personal examples. An indispensable condition for working on an analytical essay is a logical, coherent, and clear presentation of your thoughts and experiences. The beauty of the reflection paper is that there is no right or wrong answer to the matter that is discussed. This is simply impossible because you are writing about your personal experiences, thoughts. That is, when writing a reflection essay, you can not be afraid that the professor will disagree with you.

In general, when setting a task to write a reflection paper, professors do not put forward strict requirements so as not to “hamper the flight of students’ thoughts”. Nevertheless, there are several generally accepted norms in the formatting of the assignment. Here, they are:

reflection paper format

Normally, a reflection essay’s size does not exceed 400-800 words.

Reflection Paper. What To Begin With?

A prerequisite for writing a really good analytical piece is a careful reading of the article on which you need to write a paper. In order to truly feel each thesis in it, read it twice, or three times if you need it. But, do not just look through the material, along the way, write down interesting thoughts and questions that arise when you read it, make full notes on the content of the academic work.

After you’ve read your article, it’s time to brainstorm. There are a number of simple but important questions that will help you build your reflection paper in a pleasant and logical way. Here, they are:

  • What has changed in you after reading the article?
  • What is it about this article that grabs the reader’s attention?
  • Has this material changed your opinion about anything? If yes, explain how, if not, justify why.
  • Do you have unresolved questions after reading the article?
  • Have you ever read something like this?
  • How did you feel right after reading the article?

An alternative dependable approach to arrange your thoughts is to write them down in a three-column table:


The end result of your brainstorming should be a rough written summary of the content of your future reflection paper.

Typical Plan Of A Reflection Paper

Naturally, an analytical essay consists of three main parts, such as:


In this fragment of the reflection paper, the writer must clearly indicate on what reason he/she expresses his/her opinion, what he actually is reflecting on. The reader should be absolutely sure about the position of the author on this subject. Here, you must:

  • indicate exactly what you are analyzing: passage, lecture, academic article, experience, etc.)
  • briefly describe what it is about.
  • write a thesis about how it (this article) influenced you.

Main Part

Here, the author is obliged to clearly and logically describe all his experiences, thoughts, and ideas that arose in the context of this topic. Each new paragraph begins with a thematic sentence. It will not be superfluous to introduce quotes or even small excerpts in this part of the reflection essay, they will help the reader better navigate the author’s feelings and thoughts.


In this part, it is necessary to summarize what the reading of this material gave you, what experience it was, what it taught, what it made you think about. It is necessary to tell the reader how your new knowledge has impacted your understanding of the subject in general. Excellent completion of the reflection paper will be reformulating the thesis and summarizing the content of the written work.

Tips For Writing A Good Reflection Paper

There are no standard requirements for formatting and the actual presentation of an analytical essay. Here, the author is given a lot of freedom. But still, there are several recommendations that will be useful for those who are just going to write their first reflection paper.

So, here they are:

  • Check out examples. Read similar essays by other authors before you start working on an analytical assignment. This is necessary in order to understand the general idea and
    and how to approach your work in general.
  • Choose a non-trivial and interesting topic, if possible.
  • Don’t finish your reflection essay in one sitting. Extend this process, and do proofreading at least a few hours after the completion of the work.
  • Do not go beyond the specified volume of the essay. The average size of the analytical paper is 400-800 words, you should not exceed it.
  • The essay must be clear and concise. The author should make his report as clear and concise as possible. Use a strong thesis so that your reflection essay can follow it with the same strength.
  • The reflection paper should have an academic tone, vulgarisms and slang are not allowed.
  • An analytical piece for an article should contain relevant quotes and excerpts from the text.
  • Errors are unacceptable, be they spelling, grammatical or semantic errors. Check the final work carefully.

reflection paper sample


The reflection paper is a type of essay that students are often asked to write. In particular, it can be an analytical piece on a book/article or academic work. There are a number of guidelines on how to make a reflection paper really worth looking at, the most important of which is the brevity and consistency of the narrative, as well as the academic tone of the essay.

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How to Write a College Resume

Many applicants are racking their brains about how to make a college resume that good to attract the trained eye of admission officers. After all, an effective CV can be the decisive factor that will allow you to receive a letter marked “accepted”. At its core, a college bio is an easy-to-read summary of what you accomplished in high school. In addition to its direct purpose (to emphasize your highest achievements), it is obliged to show such personal character traits as decisiveness, initiative, readiness to “play in a team” and help your neighbor.

It is well known that a brilliant education makes it practicable to realize oneself in the future in the best possible way, that is, to make a dizzying career. It is in order to increase the chances of admission to the best universities that college resume exists. Follow this guide to make your biographies stand out from the rest.

high school resume

What Must Be Present In a College Resume

As mentioned above, your CV is a listing of the accomplishments in high school (not worth mentioning earlier years) and positive traits. So, the admission committee after the review of your college bio should see in a concise and simple form a statement of your grades, past work, awards, leadership, as well as, preferably, the presence of creative abilities, such as a love of music, art, journalism, or excellent skills of communication.

The main purpose of writing a resume is to show that you, as a potential student, will be successful in this educational institution and that you have all the necessary abilities, resources, and personal qualities for this. So, to that end, a college resume, in most cases, contains the following key elements to paint a complete picture of you:


This part of the resume must contain personal information, namely your name, surname, contact phone numbers, and email address. A good addition to this point would be a personal website, but only if there are achievements related to the specialization that you intend to acquire at this educational institution.

Academic Profile

The key information here is the name of the high school and your specific academic achievements in it. It will be appropriate to indicate your place among the best students in the class. If available, write about advanced courses you have completed, such as Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) courses. It will not be superfluous to indicate the results of the SAT/ACT.

Educational and Extracurricular activities

Describe your attendance and accomplishments to school clubs, bands, or sports teams in which you actively participated. This will help show the versatility of your personality.

Employment History

It is necessary to indicate the place of work while studying in high school. This may involve any day job, as well as research experience, summer programs, and study abroad programs.


This paragraph should describe in as much detail as possible all the positive skills that you possess, be it language skills, software skills, or leadership capability.

Volunteer Work

The presence of such a clause on your college resume will show that you are not indifferent to what is happening around you, are not obsessed only with your studies, and are ready to work for the good of the community.


You should take a responsible approach to this point and list the most important awards in your life, and it will be great if they are indirectly related to your intended specialization receiving in this educational institution.

Smart Tips On How To Write Eye-Catching College Resume

To make your resume one of those that the admission committee kept an eye on, follow these tips:

  • Be concise and straightforward. Do not use complicated words in which meaning you are not sure of. Also, reflections and literary techniques should be used in an essay, but not in a college resume, here the language should be simple and understandable.
  • Limit your resume to one page. This volume is enough if you correctly describe and prioritize your CV. If you do go to another page, be sure to cover more than half the space with text.
  • Share your unique experience. This will help differentiate you from other candidates.
  • It is unacceptable to lie and embellish your merits in your college resume. This can have negative consequences.
  • Use an active voice, not a passive voice. Don’t be afraid to use the pronoun “I”. If anything is your direct merit, describe it boldly in your college bio.
  • Focus on specific accomplishments over shared responsibilities. Describe briefly but in essence what exactly is your merit in this or that project.
  • Proofread your resume several times. Careful proofreading will help you to clear out any mistakes in spelling or grammar that were made in a hurry. It is recommended that you start proofreading your biography at least a few hours after it was written. In order to completely eliminate the presence of errors and inaccuracies in your resume, let at least two people look it through. You only get one chance to make a good first impression.

functional resume

College Biography Formatting Tips

The applicant has the right to build their college resume the way they want, but there are several generally accepted norms in this regard. Here, they are:

  • References to study and work experience should be sorted in descending order. You should start with the most recent ones and gradually deepen, but not too far. Merits in elementary school are unlikely to interest anyone.
  • Use bulleted lists to keep your resume looking neat and easy to read.
  • Begin each paragraph with an action verb and do not repeat them.
  • Use a consistent style. The entire college resume must be in the same font and font size. It is preferable to choose the generally accepted options such as Times New Roman, Calibri, etc.

Be sure to provide the admission committee with all the information it demands to have a complete, comprehensive picture of the person who stands behind it. Be honest, straightforward, and describe yourself briefly but as comprehensively as possible. Include all the necessary points in your resume and good luck!

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How to Write a Response Paper to a Book

How to accomplish brilliantly a response writing to a book? This question is asked by all students who have been given a task to describe their impressions of a particular literary work. As a rule, this involves the student’s independent work, which they need to pass in the format of a response paper. Therefore, today we will analyze how to write this specific type of essay – a response paper to a book.

Prior to proceeding to the actual guide, everyone who intends to start working on this research piece must be aware that there should be present the first-person active voice writing style. It’s important!

What Should Be Written?

A response essay is a statement of an individual person about a particular work, which has an emotional and evaluative character, containing the argumentation of the author’s opinion, supported by evidence. It sounds complicated, but, in fact, you just need to give an assessment (like it or not like it), and also explain why. It is very important to reveal the topic as much as possible and give a detailed answer. A response paper is a subjective thing. In it, the author not only shares an emotional impression, but they also reveal themselves through their reading habits. Much of the reasoning is based on personal experience, book tastes, and preferences.

What does it mean? In fact, it means the student has the right to their own independent opinion about any book, especially if they correctly formulate their thoughts and back them up with evidence (quotes, text fragments).


Response Essay To A Book Plan

Where should you start? First, you should read the book carefully and thoughtfully, it is better to do so at least twice. Meanwhile, you are reading, do not hesitate to make notes about interesting events, important plot twists, and your personal impressions. After looking through a literary piece, you should not immediately sit down to work, you need to give yourself time to think about intriguing and engaging thoughts and ideas. You should also not wait too long, as a rule, in order for the read book to settle down in your head, 2-3 days are enough.

Next, you need to draw up a response paper to a book plan. This may be as follows:

  • Introduction. It should contain the title of the book and the name of the writer. You can start the text with the words: “I recently read …” or “This work was written by a famous author of children’s books …”.
  • Description of the book. Here, you need to talk about the characters, you can start like this: “The main characters of the novel are …” or “In this story, the author told about …”.
  • Plot. There is no need to do a detailed retelling of the entire text, two or three explanatory sentences are enough. For example: “The story describes the conflict between …” or “The book introduces the reader to the adventures of …”.
  • Reasoning. The main part of the response paper. In it, you have to express your opinion about the work, argue for it, you can give a separate assessment to various episodes, characters. It is possible to start like this: “Of all the characters in the story, I liked the most … because … (list the character traits).”
  • Final part. Here, you ought to give a generalized assessment of the entire book, perhaps by comparing it with other works by the same author or the same genre orientation. But, you can limit yourself to recommendations: “I advise everyone to read the book because …”.

responce paper format

Questions that May Help with Work

In order to understand how to write a response paper to a book, you can try to ask yourself a few questions. Namely:

  1. What is the story of the book?
  2. Do you know the author, what other works of this writer have you read?
  3. The main idea of the piece?
  4. What did you like the most (individual episodes, characters)?
  5. What didn’t you like?
  6. Who do you want to be like from the heroes?
  7. Where and at what time does the story in the book take place? Does the book describe any historical events, unusual natural phenomena?
  8. Are there any peculiarities of the book’s language – unusual expressions, interesting literary techniques?
  9. Have the piece made you empathize with the main characters and is there something special about this story?
  10. What are you thinking after reading?

Templates (Cliché) for Writing a Response Paper

To avoid the appearance of speech errors when writing a response essay, you can use the following synonyms and expressions:

  • A book (work, novel, story, fairy tale, story);
  • I liked this book (It left an impression/bright trace, deeply touched, attracted my attention, drew attention to myself, impressed, took my soul);
  • An interesting (fascinating, exciting, impressive, curious, engraved in the memory, entertaining) book;
  • The author tells (shows, describes, depicts life, presents, speaks, illustrates, introduces problems …, outlines a range of issues such as …);
  • I especially like the main character of the story, he/she is interesting (cute, intriguing, attractive, memorable, colorful, unusual, touched me …);
  • This tale (story, book) allows us to conclude …;
  • It is easy to read this book, it contains interesting (beautiful, bright, memorable) illustrations.

When working on a response paper, you should not be “nerdy” and invent something that was not in the book and thus trying to show your originality. This type of essay is deeply personal and should express your true perception and, so to speak, “aftertaste” following reading the book. You have to be honest and frank. The teacher is interested in your individual opinion and thoughts about a particular work.

It is important to try to find the strengths and weaknesses of the work. To do this, the book should be viewed from different angles, to determine what you like and what embarrasses or upsets you. Of course, this must be done grammatically and stylistically correct to assist the reader to follow your thoughts and make the essay to be completely understandable.

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