The World Health Organization defines Female Genital Mutilation as a practice that involves the alteration of female genitalia in a manner that does not relay any medical benefits to the victim. According to Oleinick (1998), around 87% of Egyptian Islamic women support the practice. The extent of this support is attributable to various factors. These may be cultural, religious or social. The purpose of this study was to find out the current state of FGM as a cultural practice in Egypt. Secondly, the study wanted to probe useful strategies in eliminating FGM. Finally, the study was to highlight the impacts of FGM on the global healthcare system. The research uses a longitudinal approach.
Various factors make the Egyptian people susceptible to the practise of FGM. Firstly are the socio-demographic characteristics. These include factors such as age, income, religion, marital status and level of income. Islam considers FGM as ‘makruma’. This implies that it is not a mandatory, but honourable act. According to National Geographic Statistics, the country’s literacy level stands at 58%. There is limited knowledge on the implications of the practice.
There are three main categories of philosophy concerning the level of human freedom: free will, determinism and compatibilism. All they give solution to the question how much freedom does a person have. However, each of them have their certain strength and weakness, so none of these position can be a singular solution.
Free will gives a solution, that states a possibility of any person to make an individual choice without the interference of any circumstances (Caouette). The strength of it is that according to this learning the person is independent from anybody or any occasions and that he or she has the ability and right to do any actions. It means, that person’s actions is only under his or her responsibility and that there is no participle from any superior forces. Determinism is a philosophy position, that asserts that human does not have any control of his fate and that it is determined only by the will of God (Hannan, and Lehrer 49-54). Its strength is that whatever mistake a human could do, it is explained as the God’s will, which takes off any responsibility for these actions.
The Trail of Tears refers to the forceful relocation and eventual movement of the Native American communities from the South Eastern regions of the U.S. as a result of the enactment of the Indian Removal Act in the year 1830. In the year 1838, in line with Andrew Jackson’s policy of the Indians’ removal, the Cherokee community was forced to surrender its land to the east of Mississippi River and migrate to the present day Oklahoma. This journey was referred to as the “Trail of Tears” mainly due to its devastating effects it had to the Indian people. The migrants faced extreme hunger, diseases and exhaustion due to the forced march while more than 50,000 people died (Cave, 2003). The Trail of Tears resulted in a devastating effect for the Indians such as extreme hunger, diseases and exhaustion due to long walk and massive injustices and abuse of fundamental human rights.
According to Perdue (2008), the Trail of Tears is regarded as one of the tragic eras in the U.S. history mainly due to the forceful relocation of the Indians. This is also considered as the beginning of the Indian extermination by the U.S. government even though they had lived in the country several centuries before the white settlers set their foot in America. After the American Revolution and the eventual creation of the U.S., the Indians were regarded as a separate nation within a sovereign country even though they were fully committed to a peaceful coexistence with the white settlers. However, the white settlers were mostly interested in the resources of rich and productive land under the occupation of the Indians. As a result, the U.S. government embarked on a long campaign – marked by false promises, broken and false treaties, and threats of military force and racist attitudes – to oust the Indians from their native territory.
Research paper: History (Memoir value and problem as a way of recount)
Recounting the past is an important aspect of human survival in finding answers and solutions to different problems. As such, it is important that humans consider the past as they chart their way forward as to avoid repeating past mistakes in order build a conceivable future, in all aspects of human lives, be it social, political, or economic aspects. This essay focuses on two memoirs by two female writers that recount past activities that shaped human destiny significantly. The memoirs are Wild Swan by, Jung Chang, and Testament of Youth by Vera Britain. The Wild Swan memoir describes the Cultural Revolution that took place in China in a narrative that compares the experiences of her grandmother, her mother, and hers to explain China’s transformation into the modern world. In the Testament of Youth memoir, Brittain focuses on the effects of the First World War on the British middle class citizens. It further highlights the plight of women during, after the war, and in a compassionate manner that appeals to all. The memoir is given in a narrative manner that recounts the harsh experiences of Brittain that pushed her into writing the memoir as a way of expressing herself. The two memoirs are important historical aspects that reveals the past in a captivating manner and are valuable in solving current and future problems that affect humanity.
Communication is one of the essential tools used for the exchange of ideas, feelings, and even visions. It is the activity of passing across the intended information through exchange of signals, writing, thoughts, behavior, and messages (Yates 433). However, for the process to be completed, several elements of the latter must be facilitated. The basic elements of communication include a potential sender, the intended message, and finally the targeted recipient. The way information is being transmitted depends on the medium. Moreover, the medium of transmission entirely rely on whether the communication is verbal or non-verbal. Non-verbal communication makes use of body languages, symbols, and signs as its ways of passing across any message (Yates 501).
As per the requirements of the project, my area of specialization builds its concrete foundation on the body language as one of the means of communication. It is a form of physical and mental ability of man’s non-verbal communication that consists of gestures, facial expressions, body posture, and eye movements (Pease & Pease 211). Body language is one of the most effective means of relaying very sensitive information and maintaining the confidentiality of the message passed across. The sole reason of my keen interest in this means of communication is the unique nature possessed by the latter as compared to other means. People continue using body language no matter the advancement in technology and development of most effective means.