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The Effects and Research on Educational Intervention for Children in Elementary

Abstract
The goal of this study is to identify the effects and research on education intervention for children and adolescents. The study targets children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder aged between 6 and 11 years of age which is the ideal age for children in Elementary school. The researcher assessed thirty students and used reading intervention strategies including dialogue reading, bottom-up processing, phonological training and encoding. Descriptive statistics and natural study analysis were used to evaluate the data obtained from the participants. The results indicate that there is a difference in improved educational intervention with regard to phonological training and bottom-up processing among students aged between 6 and 11 years of age with the inclusion of gender and level of education. The findings of the study determined that there is a need to improve research on autistic children based on reading and language differences.

Introduction
Autism spectrum disorder is a chronic neurodevelopmental conditions mostly diagnosed at an early age. According to Bearss et al. (1525), it is estimated that autism affects six children in a population of 1,000 children worldwide. As a result, it is regarded as a significant public health challenge which needs to be addressed efficiently. Notably, autistic children exhibit behavioral, social, and intellectual difference from normal-based children. They show non-compliance to authority, aggression, tantrums, and self-injury (Bearss et al. 1525). For this reason, the education system ensures teachers are trained on how to handle and educate such children. Under the human rights’ provisions, it is also necessary to ensure that they are treated equally. Zwaigenbaum et al. elucidate that early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder is the most suitable technique so that they gain receive an education as their counterparts.

A meta-analysis review on autism education in mainstream education reveals that an educational intervention for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder has varying effects. According to Keen et al., based on a parental and professional standpoint, children with autism demonstrate different results. For example, Keen et al. indicates that most autistic children exhibited low IQ scores while others demonstrated great strengths and weaknesses, with significant variability on academic achievement. The study reveals that various educational interventions affect autistic children differently despite the considerable investment, both at home and school, involving teachers and parents. Consequently, it is necessary to address the effects of educational intervention through research-based intervention from a certain point of view. The present study will explore the way educational interventions affect the academic performance of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Literature Review
Language and communication deficiencies are a common feature among children with autism spectrum disorder (Maximo et al. 11). As such, it is recommended that identification, as well as the intervention of such defects, be determined to improve their academic performance. According to a review by Maximo et al. (12), professionals should understand the difference between expected and actual academic performance. According to a behavioral study, children with autism have difficulty in processing, such as pragmatics, phonological responses, and semantics among others (Maximo et al. 12). Murdaugh et al. concur with the report indicating that through a neuroimaging study, the brain activity of children with this disorder shows that it differs from the average children. The study concluded that children with autism showed higher recruitment of regions associated with visual processing but, reduced frontal and temporal regions associated with reading. Therefore, children with ASD (autism spectrum disorder) have a different reading profile as a result, which should be addressed individually.

In a typical reading atmosphere, children with autism demonstrate a greater use of their right hemisphere than their left hemisphere. According to Maximo et al. (13), task-based studies have determined that these children have differences in handling cognitive and linguistic tasks, which are restrained by aspects of authority compliance, subject compliance, and variations in task performance. Based on a previous research, there is a limited research on reading development in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Consequently, there is a need to analyze sub-groups based on age, gender, and class or grade. The reading capabilities of children with ASD should be profiled, especially those with lower-level word recognition abilities such as phonological processing as well as speed measures. Therefore, in this study, the researcher should analyze the reading and language capabilities among children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Research Method
Participants
The current research was conducted with compliance with the Institutional Board with written parental consent as well as child assent to data collection. Participants were 30 children with 18 males and 12 females. The children were aged between 6-11 years of age who are diagnosed with ASD. Inclusion criteria for the ASD include diagnosis of ASD confirmed by trained teachers and professionals using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (McIntyre et al. 13). Addition inclusion was based on Weschler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence-II from which the selected 30 qualified with more than ≥ 75 who met the criteria for eligibility. A total of 45 were recruited for the study. However, 15 did not improve quality under the exclusion criteria. Children with other syndromes other than ASD such as sensory and motor impairment were regarded as not fit for the study.

Measures and Procedures
The children were assessed based on educational reading interventions including dialogue reading, bottom-up processing, phonological training and encoding. For each reading intervention, assessment was based on reading comprehension, which was evaluated using the Gray Oral Reading tests. The children were subjected to progressive understanding based on easy to read to try to understand passages which they were required to read aloud (McIntyre et al. 15). Also, linguistic comprehension which involved assessing sentence comprehension, including semantic. The final measure was word recognition involved the test of word reading efficiency, which determines the standard score on measuring accuracy and fluency of sight word recognition (McIntyre et al. 15).

Analysis

  • Naturalistic design: I carefully observed the students as they went on their usual routine of study and learning. The observational design was necessary to record information regarding the natural setting from which the students are comfortable to address their learning challenges and how they handle them.
  • Quantitative Design: The research design was based on a completely randomized design. Descriptive statistics were used for the present study (Creswell et al.). Data on academic performance on how the children perform was recorded where data was obtained. Data analysis was done and recorded on Excel sheets (Lewis 475). The data were presented as a percentage for a more straightforward interpretation.

Results
From a standard study analysis, I discovered that the children have a differentiated understanding of language comprehension. From a lower grade, that is from the age of 6-11, the children showed a differential capacity of learning. For instance, females had a higher cognition of semantics and phonological comprehension compared to males. On the other hand, it was worse with age progression. This observation may be further explained by the measures of phonological processing and text accuracy. Analysis done using Gray Oral Reading tests (McIntyre et al. 15) females showed higher reading potential at 90.31% compared to males at 8.27% with a differential of non-readers at 11.35%- these are students who did not entirely understand what they were told to read. The statistics indicated that females had a higher cognition for phonological processing compared to males. The data suggests that with age, knowledge of the language, and reading improves with age.

Data representing language comprehension analysis

Figure 1: Data representing language comprehension analysis for elementary school students.

Linguistic analysis indicates that comprehension levels were varied. For elementary children between ages of 6-11 years of age showed lesser cognition when it comes to a comprehension of recalling sentences where females showed recall at 10.28% whereas, males showed higher recognition at 55.74%. According to the test of word reading efficiency students those in elementary school-aged between 6 and 11 years of age showed lower expressive vocabulary at 89.45. The results coincided with sight word efficiency based on the test of word reading efficiency.

Discussion
Information regarding reading efficiency among children in elementary school demonstrates that the effects of the educational intervention are yet to achieve its potential. McIntyre et al. (22) report that reading comprehension variability is based on the profiles of students which re-emphasizes what the current study observed. The results indicate that there is differentiation in language sub-groups based on gender and age and level of education. It is such language impairments that enunciate the differences in reading difficulties. There lacks information regarding the relation between sub-groups and language difficulties.

The present study indicates that there is a relation between language performance and reading performance in connection to gender, age, and level of education. The inclusion of both educational levels and reading skills has brought to light the effects of reading on educational interventions. The variables show that there should be much consideration when it comes to research. Long et al. (117) reports that the statistics on reading levels among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder may be higher or worse worldwide. Mottron determines that the use of early behavioral intervention may be the key to improving the academic performance of autistic children while in school. It will improve on face interaction, errorless learning, and information segmentation. About the present study, it is evident that through the sub-groups, there are differences in language performances. The data shows that participants demonstrated deficiencies in phonology and vocabulary as well as linguistic comprehension. The information concurs with a report from McIntyre et al. (23).

Action Plan
There is a need to address the difference in language performance, including phonological and linguistic comprehension, is varied when it comes to age, level of education, and gender. There is a need to conduct further analysis of these aspects to diagnose whether age or gender is the primary determinant and level of education is independent or vice versa. It such ameliorative strategy that would provide niche information that educational professionals need in training and education of children diagnosed with autism.

Works Cited
Bearss, Karen, et al. “Effect of Parent Training Vs. Parent Education On Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” Jama vol. 313, no. 15, 2015, pp. 1524-1533.
Creswell, John W., and J. David Creswell. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approach. Sage Publications, 2017.
Keen, Deb, Amanda Webster, and Greta Ridley. “How Well Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Doing Academically at School? An Overview of the Literature.” Autism vol. 20, no. 3, 2016, pp. 276-294.
Lewis, Sarah. “Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches.” Health Promotion Practice vol. 16, no. 4, 2015, pp. 473-475.
Long, Jennie L., and Richard L. Simpson. “Practitioners’ Recommendations for Foundational Educational Supports for Elementary-Age Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders.” Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities vol. 32, no. 4, 2017, pp. 269-278.
Maximo, Jose O., et al. “Changes in Intrinsic Local Connectivity After Reading Intervention in Children with Autism.” Brain and Language vol. 175, 2017, pp. 11-17.
McIntyre, Nancy S., et al. “A Comprehensive Examination of Reading Heterogeneity in Students with High Functioning Autism: Distinct Reading Profiles and Their Relation to Autism Symptom Severity.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders vol. 47, no. 4, 2017, pp. 1086-1101.
Mottron, Laurent. “Should We Change Targets and Methods of Early Intervention in Autism, in Favor of a Strengths-Based Education?.” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 26, no.7, 2017, pp. 815-825.
Murdaugh, Donna L., et al. “From Word Reading to Multisentence Comprehension: Improvements in Brain Activity in Children with Autism After Reading Intervention.” NeuroImage: Clinical vol. 16, 2017, pp. 303-312.
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie, et al. “Early Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Under Three Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.” Pediatrics vol. 136.Supplement 1, 2015, pp. S60-S81.

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