This is a free example essay on Socialization:
Nature versus nurture:
According to one side of the debate, individuals and social behavior are a product of heredity or nature. The others say that individual and social behavior are a product of experience and learning or nurture. Darwin pushed the nature viewpoint in his theory of evolution. “Humans are a product of natural processes”, he said. Evolutionary theorist used his theory to explain cross cultural differences and social inequalities. According to this, the dominant positions the Europeans occupied in the world was a result of natural selection – Asian, African and other people were regarded as biologically inferior. Within a group, people were believed to be rich and poor due to “survival of the fittest”. The concept of survival of the fittest was used to justify genocide.
In the 20th century the pendulum swayed toward “nurture”. Pavlov experimented to show that dogs could be taught to salivate even at the sound of a bell, Skinner showed that pigeons could be taught ping-pong. The experiments were done through “reward” and “punishment”. These social scientists argued that human mind is equally malleable. It was believed that human mind is tabula rasa, upon which experience writes.